Chifukwa kusewera masewerawa ndi kulolerana sizofanana

Pali chisokonezo chozungulira ubale womwe ulipo pakati pa kubereka koyenera, kulolerana kwake pakupanga ndi kuchuluka kwa chilolezo chamkati kapena 'kusewera' pakati pa mipikisano ndi mipira. Apa, Wu Shizheng, woyang'anira wamkulu wa mayendedwe ang'ono ndi ang'ono a JITO Bearings, akuwunikira chifukwa chake nthano iyi ikupitilizabe komanso zomwe mainjiniya ayenera kuyang'ana.

Munthawi ya Nkhondo Yachiwiri Yapadziko Lonse, mu fakitale yopanga zida zankhondo ku Scotland, munthu wodziwika bwino wotchedwa Stanley Parker adapanga lingaliro la udindo weniweni, kapena zomwe tikudziwa lero ngati Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T). Parker adazindikira kuti ngakhale zina mwazinthu zopangidwira ma torpedoes zimakanidwa atayang'aniridwa, zimatumizidwa kukapanga.

Atayang'anitsitsa, adapeza kuti ndiyeso yolekerera yomwe imayambitsa. Zolumikizira zachikhalidwe za XY zidapanga malo olekerera, omwe sanaphatikizepo gawolo ngakhale limakhala ndi malo ozungulira ozungulira pakati pamakona azitali. Anapitilizabe kufalitsa zomwe anapezazo za momwe angadziwire malo enieni m'buku lotchedwa Drawings and Dimensions.

* Chilolezo chamkati
Masiku ano, kumvetsetsa kumeneku kumatithandizira kukulitsa mayendedwe omwe amawonetsa kusewera kapena kumasuka, komwe kumadziwika kuti chilolezo chamkati kapena, makamaka, masewera azisudzo ndi axial. Kusewera kwapadera ndiko chilolezo chomwe chimayesedwa mozungulira molumikizira ndi axial play ndi chilolezo choyesedwa mofanana ndi cholumikizira.

Masewerawa adapangidwa kuyambira pachiyambi kuti alole kuti zithandizire kuthana ndimikhalidwe zosiyanasiyana, poganizira monga kukulira kwa kutentha ndi momwe kulumikizana pakati pa mphete zamkati ndi zakunja kumakhudzira moyo.

Makamaka, chilolezo chitha kukhudza phokoso, kugwedera, kupsinjika kwa kutentha, kupatuka, kugawa katundu ndi moyo wotopa. Kusewera kwapamwamba kwambiri ndikofunikira pamikhalidwe yomwe mphete yamkati kapena shaft ikuyembekezeka kutentha ndi kukulira pakagwiritsidwe poyerekeza ndi mphete yakunja kapena nyumba. Poterepa, kusewera pamasewera kudzachepa. Komanso, kusewera kudzawonjezeka ngati mphete yakunja ikukula kuposa mphete yamkati.

Kusewera kwa axial kwapamwamba ndikofunikira pamachitidwe pomwe pali kusokonekera pakati pa shaft ndi nyumba popeza kusalongosoka kumatha kuyambitsa zovuta ndi chilolezo chamkati cholephera mwachangu. Chilolezo chokwanira chingathenso kulola kuti chithandizocho chizitha kuthana ndi zovuta zazing'ono pamene zimayambitsa kulumikizana kwapamwamba.

* Zokwanira
Ndikofunikira kuti mainjiniya azigwira bwino ntchito moyenera. Kuthana kwambiri osasewera mokwanira kumatulutsa kutentha kwakukulu ndi mikangano, zomwe zimapangitsa mipira kuti iziyenda mumsewu ndikufulumizitsa kuvala. Momwemonso, chilolezo chambiri chimawonjezera phokoso ndi kugwedera ndikuchepetsa kulondola kozungulira.

Kutulutsa kumatha kuwongoleredwa pogwiritsa ntchito kupsa mosiyana. Kupsa kwaumisiri kumatanthauza chilolezo pakati pa magawo awiri okwatirana. Izi nthawi zambiri zimafotokozedwa ngati shaft mdzenje ndipo zimaimira kukula kwake kapena kumasuka pakati pa shaft ndi mphete yamkati komanso pakati pa mphete yakunja ndi nyumba. Nthawi zambiri zimawonekera momasuka, chilolezo chokwanira kapena cholimba, chosokoneza.

Kulimbikira pakati pa mphete yamkati ndi shaft ndikofunikira kuti izikhala m'malo mwake ndikupewa kukwawa kapena kutsetsereka kosafunikira, komwe kumatha kuyatsa kutentha ndi kunjenjemera ndikupangitsa kuwonongeka.

Komabe, kusokonekera komwe kumachepetsa kumenyera mpira ndikukulitsa mphete yamkati. Kulumikizana kofananako pakati pa nyumba ndi mphete yakunja yokhala ndi sewero lochepa kwambiri kumachepetsa mphete yakunja ndikuchepetsa chilolezo mopitilira. Izi zithandizira kuti pakhale chilolezo cholakwika mkati - kupangitsa kuti shaftyo ikhale yayikulu kuposa dzenje - ndikupangitsa kukangana kwambiri ndikulephera koyambirira.

Cholinga ndikukhala ndi sewero logwira ntchito pomwe zovalazo zikuyenda bwino. Komabe, masewera oyambira oyambira omwe amafunikira kuti akwaniritse izi atha kuyambitsa mavuto ndikutsetsereka kapena kuterera kwa mipira, kuchepetsa kukhwimitsa ndi kulondola kozungulira. Kusewera koyambira kumeneku kumatha kuchotsedwa pogwiritsa ntchito preloading. Kutsegulanso ndi njira yokhazikitsira cholumikizira chokhazikika, chikakonzedwa, pogwiritsa ntchito ma washer kapena akasupe omwe amakwanira mphete yamkati kapena yakunja.

Akatswiri akuyeneranso kulingalira kuti ndikosavuta kuchepetsa chilolezo m'zigawo zochepa chifukwa mphetezo ndizocheperako komanso ndizosavuta kupunduka. Monga wopanga mayendedwe ang'onoang'ono ndi ang'onoang'ono, JITO Bearings imalangiza makasitomala ake kuti chisamaliro chochulukirapo chiyenera kuchitidwa ndikukwana nyumba. Kutsinde ndi kuzungulira kwa nyumba ndikofunikanso kwambiri ndi mayendedwe ofooka amtundu chifukwa shaft yozungulira imapundula mphete zowonda ndikuwonjezera phokoso, kugwedera komanso makokedwe.

* Kupirira
Kusamvetsetsana pankhani yokhudza kusewera kwapadera ndi axial kwapangitsa ambiri kusokoneza ubale pakati pamasewera ndi kulondola, makamaka kulondola komwe kumabwera chifukwa chololerana bwino pakupanga.

Anthu ena amaganiza kuti kunyamula mwatsatanetsatane sikuyenera kukhala ndi sewero lililonse ndipo kuyenera kuti kuzungulire ndendende kwambiri. Kwa iwo, kusewera kotayirira kumadzimva kukhala kosafunikira kwenikweni ndipo kumawoneka ngati otsika, ngakhale atha kukhala otsogola kwambiri opangidwa mwadala ndi sewero lotayirira. Mwachitsanzo, tidafunsa ena mwa makasitomala athu m'mbuyomu chifukwa chake amafuna kuti atengeke mwatsatanetsatane ndipo adatiuza kuti akufuna, "kuchepetsa kusewera".

Komabe, ndizowona kuti kulolerana kumayenda bwino. Pasanapite nthawi kuchokera pamene kupanga makina ambiri, akatswiri adazindikira kuti sizothandiza kapena zachuma, ngati zingatheke, kupanga zinthu ziwiri zomwe zikufanana ndendende. Ngakhale zonse zopanga zisungidwe chimodzimodzi, sipadzakhala kusiyana kwamphindi pakati pa gawo limodzi ndi linzake.

Lero, izi zikuyimira kulolerana kololeka kapena kovomerezeka. Makalasi opirira ma ball ball, omwe amadziwika kuti ISO (metric) kapena ABEC (inchi), amawongolera kupendekera kovomerezeka ndikuphimba kuphatikiza kukula kwa mphete yakunja ndi yakunja komanso kuzungulira kwa mphete ndi mayendedwe. Kutalika kwa kalasi ndikulola kulolerana, kunyalanyaza kudzakhala koyenera ikangosonkhanitsidwa.

Pochita bwino pakati pa kukhazikika ndi kusewera kwapadera ndi axial panthawi yogwiritsira ntchito, mainjiniya amatha kukwaniritsa chilolezo chogwiritsa ntchito zero ndikuwonetsetsa phokoso lochepa komanso kusinthasintha kolondola. Pochita izi, titha kuthetsa chisokonezo pakati pa kulondola ndi kusewera ndipo, momwemonso Stanley Parker adasinthiratu kuyeza kwa mafakitale, asintha momwe timayang'aniranso mayendedwe.


Post nthawi: Mar-04-2021